Ashes To Ashes, Dust To Dust.tar
I remember the day I heard. May 13, 2011 the internationally renowned American artist, Stephen De Staebler, died. Ashes to ashes, dust to dust, Stephen had now returned to the earth that was such an integral part of his work.
Ashes to Ashes, Dust to Dust.tar
Before it is burned to produce electricity, coal is pulverized into a fine dust. When the dust is burned, it leaves residual particles, analogous in a home fireplace to the leftover ashes and residues left on the ground, on the bricks and in the chimney. When the ash and residuals are removed, they become industrial waste that needs to be stored. Coal ash may contain pollutants including heavy metals like mercury, arsenic, and lead. Because coal-fired power plants require large amounts of water for cooling, they are often located near rivers. Coal ash is typically stored on-site in open-air pits. Even after the plants are retired, a site containing coal-ash continues to house potential contaminants. In North Carolina, these sites are monitored by the Department of Environmental Quality.
All magmas contain dissolved gases, and as they rise to the surface toerupt, the confining pressures are reduced and the dissolved gases are liberatedeither quietly or explosively. If the lava is a thin fluid (not viscous),the gases may escape easily. But if the lava is thick and pasty (highlyviscous), the gases will not move freely but will build up tremendous pressure,and ultimately escape with explosive violence. Gases in lava may be comparedwith the gas in a bottle of a carbonated soft drink. If you put your thumbover the top of the bottle and shake it vigorously, the gas separates fromthe drink and forms bubbles. When you remove your thumb abruptly, thereis a miniature explosion of gas and liquid. The gases in lava behave insomewhat the same way. Their sudden expansion causes the terrible explosionsthat throw out great masses of solid rock as well as lava, dust, and ashes.
The Figure below and to the left shows the variation in resistivity with changing gas temperature for six different industrial dusts along with three coal-fired fly ashes. The Figure on the right illustrates resistivity values measured for various chemical compounds that were prepared in the laboratory.
The valley of ashes is the depressing industrial area of Queens that is in between West Egg and Manhattan. It isn't actually made out of ashes, but seems that way because of how gray and smoke-choked it is.
This brief mention of the ashheaps sets up the chapter's shocking conclusion, once again positioning Wilson as a man who is coming out of the gray world of ashy pollution and factory dust. Notice how the word "fantastic" comes back. The twisted, macabre world of the valley of ashes is spreading. No longer just on the buildings, roads, and people, it is what Wilson's sky is now made out of as well. At the same time, in combination with Wilson's "glazed" eyes, the word "fantastic" seems to point to his deteriorating mental state.
At the same time, the phrase "the valley of ashes" connects to the Biblical "the valley of the shadow of death" found in Psalm 23. In the psalm, this terrifying place is made safe by the presence of God. But in the novel, the valley has no divine presence or higher moral authority. Instead, the ashes point to the inexorable march toward death and dissolution, linking this valley with the Anglican burial services reminder that the body is "ashes to ashes, dust to dust." Even when George tries to sense a divine presence through the eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg, the fact that no one else is impacted by this billboard's inanimate presence ultimately dooms George as well.
Myrtle Wilson: George's wife remains vibrant and colorful despite her 11 years living in the middle of the ash heaps. Her dreams of escape enable her to avoid being covered with the dust that ends up burying everyone else. However, because her path to leaving centers on Tom, the valley of ashes ends up being Myrtle's death trap.
The Eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg: The billboard that features the strikingly disquieting disembodied giant eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg is located in the middle of the valley of ashes, right next to Wilson's garage. Just as the ash heaps reveal the huge gulf between the poor and the rich, so the eyes stare at the devastation that heedless capitalism has created. This stare seems accusatory, but of course, the eyes are completely inanimate, and so whatever guilt they produce in the person they are looking at dissipates almost immediately. The eyes speak to the lack of God/religion in the novel, and that how George is the only one who outwardly grants them any larger significance beyond Nick and Tom's half-hearted discomfort under their stare.
Strength development. Strength development in flowable fill mixtures is directly related to the amount of cementitious material and water content. With low CaO (Class F) fly ashes, the cement content and water content relate directly to strength development. With high CaO (Class C) fly ashes, no cement may be required and strength is related directly to the fly ash and water content. Most high fly ash content mixes only require from three to five percent portland cement by dry weight of the fly ash to develop 28-day compressive strengths in the 345 to 1,000 kPa (50 to 150 psi) range. Long-term strength may gradually increase beyond the 28-day strength. Water content of mix also influences strength development. Water is added to achieve a desired flowability or slump. At a given cement content, increased water content usually results in a slight decrease in compressive strength development over time. With high air (greater than 20 percent) flowable fill mixtures, the water content is reduced and strength is limited by the presence of air voids. 041b061a72